Scientists Bring Sense of Touch to Amputees Using Neural Signals

Wednesday, October 26, 2016

Scientists Bring Sense of Touch to Amputees Using Neural Signals


Bionics

New research may provide the blueprint for building neuroprosthetic devices that recreate the sense of touch via bionic touch. By directly stimulating the nervous system, scientists have been able to produce realistic sensations to test patients.



Researchers at the University of Chicago and Case Western Reserve University have found a way to produce realistic sensations of touch in two human amputees by directly stimulating the nervous system.

The work, which was published recently in the journal Science Translational Medicine, backs up earlier research on how the nervous system encodes the intensity, or magnitude, of sensations. It is the second of two groundbreaking publications this month by University of Chicago neuroscientist Sliman Bensmaia, PhD, using neuroprosthetic devices to recreate the sense of touch for amputee or quadriplegic patients with a “biomimetic” approach that approximates the natural, intact nervous system.

Also in a separate publication from STM, Bensmaia and a team led by Robert Gaunt, PhD, from the University of Pittsburgh, announced that for the first time, a paralyzed human patient was able to experience the sense of touch through a robotic arm that he controls with his brain.

In that study, the researchers interfaced directly with the patient’s brain, through an electrode array implanted in the areas of the brain responsible for hand movements and for touch, which allowed the man to both move the robotic arm and feel objects through it. This work was done to understand how an uninjured hand's nervous system communicates and encodes information during tasks.

With such knowledge, the research teams were able to fill in the gaps in the process for patients with amputations, and help them feel the sensation of touch through a surrogate bionic prosthetic.

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Working with two male subjects who each lost an arm after traumatic injuries, both subjects were implanted with neural interfaces in their arms. The electrodes were embedded to the median, ulnar and radial nerves of the arm. Those are the same nerves that would carry signals from the hand were it still intact.

“If you want to create a dexterous hand for use in an amputee or a quadriplegic patient, you need to not only be able to move it, but have sensory feedback from it,” said Bensmaia, who is an associate professor of organismal biology and anatomy at the University of Chicago. “To do this, we first need to look at how the intact hand and the intact nervous system encodes this information, and then, to the extent that we can, try to mimic that in a neuroprosthesis.”
Electrical stimulation was delivered by an external stimulator
Image Source: Graczyk et al,Science Translational Medicine.

Results from the new study verified the teams overall hypothesis: A single feature of electrical stimulation—dubbed the activation charge rate—was found to determine the strength of the sensation. By changing the activation charge rate, the team could change sensory magnitude in a highly predictable way. The team then showed that the activation charge rate was also closely related to the evoked population spike rate.

"Results from this study constitute a first step towards conveying finely graded information about contact pressure."
The work also points to the fact that artificial touch will only be as good as the devices providing input. In a separate paper published earlier this year in IEEE Transactions on Haptics, Bensmaia and his team tested the sensory abilities of a robotic fingertip equipped with touch sensors.

Bensmaia’s team tested the finger’s ability to distinguish different touch locations, different pressure levels, the direction and speed of surfaces moving across it and the identity of textures scanned across it. The robotic finger (with the help of machine learning algorithms) proved to be almost as good as a human at most of these sensory tasks.

Combining such high-quality input with the algorithms and data Bensmaia and his team produced in the other study, may help in building neuroprosthetics that approximate natural sensations of touch project the researchers. Bensmaia even projects that they may one day produce enough granularity in bionic touch sensations to even play a musical instrument.

“The idea is that if we can reproduce those signals exactly, the amputee won’t have to think about it, he can just interact with objects naturally and automatically. Results from this study constitute a first step towards conveying finely graded information about contact pressure,” Bensmaia said.




SOURCE  The University of Chicago


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